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          葡京娱外围足球LinFayuanAgainstthebackdropofglobalization,airtransportliberalizationhasal,itwillbringasetchallengetohedevelopingtrendsandfundamentalimplicationsofairlinetransportliberalization,seizeopportunities,welcomechallenges,zationreferstoanadjustmentinwhichthemanagementoftheairlinetransportindustryshiftsfromdetailedmanagementbythegovernmenttogreaterrelianceonmarketforces,giv(relaxedmanagement)ofgovernmentinterferenceinacountry’sdomesticairlineindustryandtheintroductionofmarket-managementprinciplesinareaslikemarketaccess,pricingandrouteallocathebilateral,tingtheothertoenterthedomestic(orregional)throughthedrasticincreaseof"OpenSkies",andrelievesrestrictionsondesignationofairlinefirmsandairlinepowers,shippingstrength,flightnumbers,alizationagreements,coveringEurope,CentralandSouthAmerica,Africa,ransportAssociationin2003passedthe"DeclarationofPrinciplesforInternationalAirTransport",settingoutthemanagementstructurefortheadvanceofliberalization,includingmeasurestoguaranteefaircompetition,security,andeffectiveprotectionfordevelopingcount,ternationalairtransportliberalization,andisplayingaguidingroationwasstarteustryimplementthe"OpenSkies"accord,howeverthissuggestionwasnotwelcomedbyothercoun,theprogressachievedineconomictheoriesandpracticescausedpeopletograduallyrealizethatthedomesticairlineindustrywasactuallymuchmorecompetitive,andthereforecountrieswithdevelopedairlineindustryandrepresentedbytheUn,theUnitedStatesbegantoimplementtheOpenSkiespolicy,,andaccordingtotheneedsofitsindustry,,theUnitedStatesandHollandsignedthefirst"OpenSkies",,theheadoftheEuropeanCivilAviationConference(ECAC)proposedrelaxingtheEuropeancivilaviationmanagementsystem,includingpartialliberalizationofcarryingcapacityandticke,severalcountriesinEuropebeganacourseofairtransportliberalization,graduallyeliminatingexistingbarrierstomarketentryandcompetition,,1993,the"ThirdPackageforLiberalization""EuropeanUnionAirCarrier"andsupersedllingrightsinairlinecompaniesinertystandardsandgetregisteredinaEuropeanUnionstate,Africa,CentralAmericaandelsewherealsobegantoimplementliberalizationmeasuresfortheairtransportindustry,resultinginmanydifferentmodesofliberalization:aCentralAmericanstyleforsixcountries,anIndianstyle,anAustralian-Singaporestyle,andaSouthAmerican"AndesGroup"style,,airtransportlibnabeganairtransportliberalizationrelativelylate,,h89countriesbytheendof2002,ngapore,thePhilippinesandothercountriesandmulti-originflightsfromChinatoJapan,Germany,,therewerelimitsonmanyfactorssuchasthenumberanddestinations,,startingin2003,thefocusofChina’scivilaviationindustryshiftedfromprotectiontoageneralconsiderationofthenationalandsocialinterests,industryinterests,,YangYuanyuan,DirectoroftheCivilAviationAdministrationofChina,statedatthe5thWorldwideAirTransportConferencethatChinawouldstreamlineitscourseofliberalization,andactively,orderly,smoothly,andinaguaranteedfashionimpelthecourseofairtransportliberalizationaccordingtotheneedsofChinese,t,theXiamenairportbecamethefirstairporttoliberalizethe"fifthflightright",,23foreigncountriesatShanghaiairporthadalreadyreceivedthe"fifthflightright".In2003,ChinasignednewflightrightsarrangementswithMongolia,Austria,Australia,Holland,France,Japanand12othercountries,thusmakingnewstridesforwardinexpandingairportaccess.WangWeiProvisionsoftheAntitrustLawthatdefineitsscopeofapplicationrevealtheAntitrustLaw’sstatusasan"economicconstitution"forafreemarketeconomy,whileprovisionsonexceptions(orexemptions)createabalancebetweeandadjustmentmechanismsthatmightbeusedtogovernChina’esandlegislationaswellasthep’sAntitrustLaw:theLawShouldBeAppliedUniversallyAsthe"economicconstitution"ofamarketeconomy,antitrustlawisessentiallyaptoAntitrustLaw("extra-territorialeffect"),,ofcourse,subjecttotheprinciplesofinternationallaw,internationalcooperationinenforcement,,thevariousAntdingthoseinvolvedintheproductionandsellingofcommodities,butalsothoseinvolvedinmodernservicesandculturalindustries,suchasfinance,medicine,education,,relaxedregulationandstimulatedcompetition,thescopeofAntitrustLawshou,whichimpedesoraffectscompetition,includingenterprises,associations,practitioners(suchaslawyers,accountantsanddoctors)andtogovernmentaldepartmentsorunitsthatimpede,theAntitrustLawshouldbeapplieduniversallyandnotonlytoaparticularsector,’sAntitrustLawShouldNotExplicitlyCoverTooManyExceptionsWhiletheprincipleofuniversalapplicationisessential,inordertoachieveharmonybetweentheAntitrustLawandothereconomicpolicies,socialdevelopmentobjectivesandpublicinterests,AntitrustLawsinmostcountriesprovi,duringthepracticalapplicationofAntitrustLaws,differentcountrieshaveadopte,thecontentsandexemptionmodelo,Japanprovidedfor100exceptions,throughindustrialpoliciesandlegislations,duringitshigh-speedgrowthperiod;now,,sdirectlyintheanti-trustlaw,whilefurtherexceptionsareprovidedinrelatedbytradeunion,orunionsofemployees,involvingissuesofhiring,,whichareprovidedtocertainorganizations,suchasfishingoragriculturalones,,whenChina’sAntitrustLawremainslargelyunderdeveloped,Chinam,thelawcanexpresslyhighlightthepartialrestrictionofcompetitionthatspringsfromthenecessaryprotectionofintellectualproperty,,andcurrentexceptionsdeletedormodified,heAntitrustLawtoMakeitBalancewithOtherSocialandEconomicDevelopmentObjectivesSinceexceptionswhichmaybedirectlyprovidedintheAntitrustLawarelimited,forthetimebeing,dreformpoliciesand,inmanyrespects,itisofgreatimportancetoestablishadynam,themechanismsmeanttoadjustthescopeofappli,conditionsandproceduresforcertainindustriesandsectorsthroughspeciallawsandregulations,itrustLawsandothersocialandeconomicobjectives,butalsoavoidsagreatnumberofdifficultiesthatmightariseduringtheimplementati,itisofnolessimportancetoprovideforproceduresandrulesforgrantingexceptions,whichdefineconditions,approvalprocesses,,proceduralrulesforexceptionsfallintothefollowingcategories.

          ResearchReportNo060,:’si’sinformationindustry[1]haswitnessedarapidgrowth,whichhasbecomeakeyfactorbehindthedevelopmentofthenationaleconomy,sofyears,morethandoublethegrowthoftheGDP,increasingto573billionyuanin2002andaccountingformorethan5%estgrowingindustryinChinainthepastdozensofyears,whichhascaTVhasalsoreportedarapidgrowth,whichprovidedavitalbasicserviceforthedevelopmentofChina’einformationtechnology(IT)hav,informatiothestateandsociety,"roadofanewtypeofindustrialization"and"insistedonrealizingindustrializationwithinformatizationandpromotinginformatizationwithindustrialization".ItisclearlyproposedthattheinformryinChinaAc’sinformationindustryboastsahugescale,,theindustrialoutputvalueoftheelect,on(with214millionfixed-phoneusersand207millioncell-phoneusers),’sinformationindustry,rangingfromsparepartstowholesetsandfrommanufacturingtoservice,,includingthetradeandinvestmentglobalization,hasbstmentinChina,anddomesticallyanumberofindigenousent,ChanghongandTCLintheconsumerelectronicssector,HuaweiandZhongxinginthecommunicationsector,LenovoGroupinthecomputersectorandthefourgiantsinthecommunicationoperationindustry,allof’sinformatryhasbeenbasicallyopened,andthetelecommunicationoperationindustryhasbeenopenedinmorefieldsonthebasi,Chinawillreadjustitspolicyandfurtheropenitsmarket,a’’sinformationindustry:descriptionandassessmentofrolesThedevelopmentofChina’sinformationindustryisaresultofthecontinuedgrowthoftheChineseeconomy,theexpandingmarketdemandsandtheeffortsbyenterprisesthemselves,ina’’spolicyondevelopment,reformandopeningup,,thepolicyaffectingthemechanismandenndsourceofdevelopment,thereformofstate-ownedenterprises,thesupportforandtheallowingofthedevelopmentofenterprisesfromdifferentsectorsoftheeconomy,,itwasencouragedtointroducetechnologyandcapital,,restrictionsontradeitemshavebeeneasedandtheintroductionofforeignfundswasfurtherencouraged,butthecapitalaccountwasstillputundercomparativelytightcontrol(Forexample,foreignbusinessmenwerenotallowedtoengageinthedomesticdistributionbusiness).TodevelopthedomesticcapitalmarketandallowChineseenterprisestoraisefundsoverseashavecrnindustryinthe1980swastointroducethemodeofenterprisetotelecommunicationoperationinstitutions,,thepolicywastobreakmonopoly,developtheInternetandpromotetelecommunicationsinterconnectionandtograduallyrelaxtheaccessbarriersof"ownershiprestrictions"and"departmentrestrictions".Thepolicyemphasisoftheinformationproductsmanufacturingandserviceindustriesinthe1980swastodevelopshortlineproductswithweakcompetitiveness,increasesupplyan,theoveralldevelopmentoftheinformationindustryhasbeenacceleratedwiththesteadyprogressofinformatizationofthenationaleconomy,,thepoliciesontelecommunicationproducts,softwareandintegratedcircuitthathavebeenreleasedoneafteranotherwereaimedatdirectlypushingforwardthedevelopmentofinformationproductsandservicesbygrantingspecialsupportforselectedprojects,taxpreferentialsandtechnicalstandards....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------[1]Theinformationindustrymentionedinthisreportreferstotheelectronicsinformationindustry(includingelectronicsmanufacturingindustry,softwareandserviceindustries)andtelecommunicationserviceindustry).胜博发体育国际官网手机appSincethecurrentroundofglobaldecelerationofeconomicgrowthhasresultedfrommarketsurplusofITproducts,’scase,however,exportsoftraditionalproductsslackened,withthegrowthrateoftextilerawmaterialsandtextileproducts,shoes,headwear,%%,andthatofsomete,thetradeofelectro-machineryandhi-techproductswasextremelybrisk,%%eformofprocessingtrade,theirgrowingindicatesthatthegrowthoftheaggregatevolumeofChina’stradeandtheimprovementofstructureisipalitiesintheWesternRegionandBigFallofExportsintheSouthernandtheNortheasternReg,forinstance,%;Jiangsu,%;andShanghai,14%.%growth;Qinghai,%;andGansu,%.Whathasbeeneye-catching,however,isthatgrowthofexportsinth,-%.GuangdongProvince,whichcontributesonethirdtoChina’sexports,%,acityinGuangdongProvince,%torinthesubstantialdecelerationofthegrowthspeedofChina’,andInitialSuccessinTappingNewMarketsItisapparentthatChina’sex,China’sexportstoJapan,EuropeandtheUnitedStates,threeofitsmajorexportmarkets,%,9%%,China’,theChineseGovernmentandtheChineseenterpriseshavemadevigorouseffortstoop’sexportstoAfricaandLatinAmerica,forinstance,stoodat21%%’%%onservicesontheChinesemainland,Hong’sSituationinForeignTradeThecharacteristicsofChina’sforeigntradeintheyear2001,asdescribedabove,haveresultedfromthejointactionofmanyfactors,includingthefollowingbasicfactors:Firstofall,,,’,andbecomeamajorfactortoblamefortheslowdownofChina’’sexportsareexecutedintheformofprocessingtrade,slowdownofexportshasresultedinaslowergrowthofimportsintheformofprocessingtrade....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

          LiuShijing,LuZhongyuan,ZhangLiqunLiJianweiDuetotheimpactoftheAsianfinancialcrisisandasaresultofthepressureofdomesticdeflation,China’seconomicgrowthfellforatimeaft,deepeningreformandopeningupandacceleratingeconomicrestructuringaswellasothermajorpolicymeasures,,theeconomy’sself-growth(endogenousandmarket-orientedgrowth)mechanismisgettingstr,Chinaneedstomaintainthecontinuityandstabilityofmacroeconomicpoliciessoastoconsolidatetheeconomy’sself-growthfoundationandmaketheperformanceofthenationalecothisyear,investmentandexporthavepostedarobustgrowth,consumptionhasbeenbriskandindustrialupgradinghasbeenfaster,artersandaquantitativeprojectionbyusingthemonthlymacroeconomicmeasuringmodelindicat,(1)Consumptiondemandhasbeenbriskandinvestment’sself-growthcapacityhasbeenpromotedConsumptionhasmain,,,,,()duringthesameperiod,,theupgradingofurbanandruralresidents’,theannualdeclineratesofth,ariseofsimilarintensitywaspostedforthespendingoftransportation,housing,medicalcare,,thepullingeffectof,,,or6percentagepointshigher,nd,butmo,,theaverageannualgrowthrateofalldomesticprivateinvestment,includingthejoint-stockeconomicsector,thecollectiveeconomicsector,theprivateeconomicsectorandthecooperativeeconomicsector,,,,,theinves,tofthestate-ownedeconomicsector,,theproportionofprivateinvestmentinallsocialinves,theproportionsoftheinvestmentsmadebythestate-ownedeconomicsector,thedomesticprivateeconomicsectorandtheforeignersandthosefromHongKong,,,however,,()exceededthatofthecollectiveeconomicsector().Second,thedependenceofthegrowthofallsocialinvestmentongovernmentst,theamounto,theproportionoftreasurybondinvestment(includingconstructiontreasurybondandtheinvestmentofallsupportingfunds),,thedownwardadjustmentofinterestrateshasyear,centyearsindicatesthatinthefirstthreequartersof2000,2001and2002,themacropoliciesaimeda,,investme,,raterevenue,price,expectation,self-raisedfund,foreignfundutilizationandothermarketfactorshavebeencontinuouslyontherise....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,,wehavechosentheShishiCityofFujianProvince,WenjiangDistrictofChengduCity,LilingCityofHunanProvince,Helinge’erCountyofInnerMongoliaandYanchiCountyofNingxiatorespectivelyrepresentregionsofveryhigh,relativelyhigh,medium,relativelylow,andveryloweconom~2003,t%.During1990~2003,theaveragean%.Between1992and2002,t%.Between1995and2003,theeducationalfundofHelinge’%,RelativelyLowandVeryLowEconomicDevelopmentLevelsIsStillInadequate;RegionalDisparityIsRelativelyHuge;,thebasiceducationinputintheruralareasofregionsofveryhighandrelativelyhigheconomicdevelopmentlevelscanbeguaranteed,however,educationalinputinregionsofmedium,re,thenumberofpersonsdeprivedofeducationintheruralareasoftheseregionsarerelativelylarge,theratiosofteacherstostudentsareimproper,andqualityoftheteachersneedspromptimprovement,wageandwelfarearestillinsufficient,teachingandstudyingconditionsarerelativelypoor,theaveragefloorareaofschoolbuildingperstudentisnotadequate,theburdeninrenovatingdilapidatedbuildingsisstillheavy,andinordertocomeuptothestandardsof"basicallyrealizinguniversalnine-yearcompulsoryeducationandbasicallyeliminatingyoungadultilliterates",theaverageeducationalfundperstudent,,in2003,’erCountyandtheYanchiCountyrespectively,andtheaverageeduc’erCountyandtheYanchiCountyrespectively,,shortag,thenumberofpupilsenrolledintheprimaryschoolsoftheLilingCityisdecreasingatarapidrate,%during1997~,%.By2007,thenumberofstudentsatseniorhighschoolswillreachapeak,withover20,,seniorhigheducoRMB400~500foreachsemester,whichmaybepaidintheformofalumpsumof"donation",usuallyRMB1200forprimaryschools,,theproportionofeducationexpendituresfromthecentralbudgetinGDPisnotonlybelowthelevelofthedevelopedcountries(%in1998)butalsoismuchlowerthanthatofthedevelopingcountries(%in1995).Itisnecessarytofurtherreinforcetheroleofthepublicfuncti,theproportionofthestatefinancialrevenueandprovincialfinancialrevenuesinthetotalfinancialrevenueisgettinglargerandlarger,however,theresponsibilityinrespectof,theCentralGovernmentandthepeople’sgovernmentsattheprovincialandmuralareas,thereisnospecificprescriptionastowhetherthegeneraltransferpaymentshallbeusedforcapitalconstructionorthepaymentofteachers’salary,epoorareas,andincludethebasiceducationintheruralar,apartfromtransferpaymentintheformofsalary,theannualspecialtransferpaymentusedforruraleducationofthewesternregionwillamountto10billionRenminbi,whichwillcontribute,theeducationalfundinthecentralregionisalsoinshortsupply,therefore,itisnecessarytoincludetheeducationalfundinanddecidedonthebasisofcalculatingthebasiceducationalfuemainlyresponsibleforthecompuls,itisforbiddentocollect"donations",theseniorhighschooleducationshallbetakenasquasipublicservice,葡京娱外围足球

          葡京娱外围足球dGuaranteeSysteminChinaSince1998,governmentsatalllevelsbeganexploringthepossibilityofhelpingsmallandmedium-sizedheendofJunethisyssurveyshowsthatthisnetworkdidplayapositiveroleidmedium-sizedenterprisesinoperationcanbesummarizedasfollows:(1)CorporateguaranteeinstitutionsasthemainbodyofthecurrentguaranteesystemMostoftheexistinginstitutionsarecreditguaranteeentities,naggregate,communityandinstitutionlegalentities,ofwhich,inantlybythegovernment(largelywithfiscalfunds),,withindependentaccountingandoperations,responsiblefortheirownprofitsandlosses.(2)HighdispersionasthemaintendencyofguaranteeinstitutionsUnderthegovernmentsponsorshipatvariouslevels,smallandmedium-sizedcreditguaranteeinstitutionshavemushroomedoverthepasttwoyearsinvillages,townships,nofgovernmentleaders,yspecialdepartments,suchasfinancialbureau,townshipenterprisebureau,economicandtradecommissionorassociationofindustryandcommerce,whoserules,haiBranchoftheChinaEconom,theirproviders--financialdepartmentsofvillage,townshipordistr,dispersionevencharacterizestheirdecision-makingmechanism.(3)SmallsizeastheirgeneralcharacterThishas,,thelargesthad10employees,wheDespitetheirpositiveroleindemonstrationandpromotionforcreditguarantee,theseguaranteeinstitutionsarealsoplaguedwiththefollowingnoteworthyproblems:(1)Absenceof,thefundsoftheguaranteeinstitutionsaremostlyonelumpsumfromlocalfiscalbu,havingnooptionotherthanraisingguaranteeconditions.(2)Absenceofrisk-sharingmechanismwithbank,guaranteeinstitutionsgenerallyshoulder70to80percento,fragilestrengthandweaknegotiationpositionmadeitpossibleformostbankstoshiftrisksinvolvedinprovidingcreditforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestotheguaranteeinstitutions,withmanyofthemforcedtoundertake100%capacity,butalsoweakenedthebanksexaminationandassessmentoftheenterprises,thusaggravatingrisksasawhole.(3)Lackofstandardizedmanagementan,atpresent,hems,,absenceofhorizontalexchangechannelsamongguaranteeinsti,creditguaranteerequiresexpertiseinfinance,fiscal,law,t-timeemployeesorretirees,,,thismanageme,excessiveguaranteesumforasingleprojectandotherabuses.(4)PronetoimproperandunfairfunddistributionThoughtheoreticallyofpublicwelfareandformassivesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinfundutilization,theco,thenatureofthecorporatesystemmadeitdifficultforthesegovernment-sponsoredguaranteecompaniestobeimmunetoprofittemptations,,someguaranteecompanieswereapttopreferlargeenterprisesandloathethesmallon,,nosh’ssubsidiesagainstriskstoprivateshareholders,alprocess,high,thec,theguaranteeinstitutionsbasicallyofferedtheirservicesonlyforcirculatingfunds,,,theguaranteeinstitutionsdemanded30%asguaranteefund,bankdemandedanother15%asguaranteefund,,,oftheguaranteesofferedbytheCreditGuaranteeAssociationintheYamagataCountyofJapan,70%requirednomortgage,withtheproportionoffundsgoingforequipmentinvestmentsreaching58%andthatlastingfromthreetotenyearshitting61%(seeCreditGuaranteeMonthly,,2001,publishedbytheYamagataCountyCreditGuaranteeAssociation).Clearly,servicesprovidedbytheexistingguaranteeinstitutionsinChinacanhardlymeetfinancingdemandsofthelargenumbersofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ZhangJunkuoandZhaoHuaiyongResearchReportNo138,stributionandstructureofstate-ownedeconomy,upporting,leadinganddrivingnationaleconomy,seriousandirrationalsituationstillexistsindistributionandstructureofstate-ownedeconomy,:(1)Theproblemsofunreasonabledistributionofstate-ownedeconomyandthemisplacement,,thenumberofstate-ownedenterprisesdistributedinordinarycompetitiveindustriesreached155,000in2001,(SOEs).yrestrictedthe,state-ownedassetsarestillwidelydistributedinalargenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(SMEs).Thenumberofstate-ownedindustrialandcommercialSMEsstoodat164,000in2001,,whilethetotalassetsofstate-ownedindustrialandcommercialSMEsreachedRMB5,720billion,,inmanyfieldswherethestate-ownedeconomyandcapitalshallfullyplaytheirroles,,theinvestmentofstate-ownedcapitalininfrastructure,basicresearchandbasiceducation,,thecurrentoutbreakandspreadofSARSepidemicalsofullyshowedthescarcityofstate-ownedcapitalsinvestmentinpublichealthandinthebuildingofanemergencyresponsesystem.(2)State-ownedenterprisesasawholehavelowcompetitiveness,etitiveindustriesandSMEswhichdoesnothaveobviouscompetitiveadvantage,thusSOEsasawholeseemtohavelowerabilityinadaptingthemselvestomarketcompetitionandpoore,,2percentagepointslowerthanthatofnonst,,net-lossSOEsamountedto67,000incompetitiveindustries,;whilelossesofthesenet-lossenterprisesincompetitiveindustriesaccountedfor73percentofallSOEsnomyissuretorestricttheupgradingthequalityofthewholenationaleconomyasstate-ownedec,atpresent,state-ownedeconomyaccountsforabout60percentofthetotalsocialassets,thecontributionofstate-ownedeconomytoChina’snationaleconomycannotmat,in2002,industrialSOEsaccountedfor62percentofthetotalassetsofallindustrialSOEsandindustrialenterpriseswhoseannualsalesexceededthescale,nnualsalesarelessthanRMB5millionhavelowratiosoffixedcapitaltovariablecapital,thecomparativecontributionrateofindustrialSOEsmaybeevenlower.(3)State-ownedeconomyisnotablartyCentralCommittee,themainfunctionofstate-ownedeconomyisnottodevelopitsownscalebuttosupport,rdinarycompetitivefieldswhereprivatecapitalisabletoplayitsrolewell,difficultiesfortheirsurvival,nottomentiontheirroleinsupportinganddrivingthewholenationaleconomy.(4)Thelagging-behindofreformandpoorperformanceofstate-ownederesourcesandasthedistributionstructureofstate-ownedcapitalisirrational,thisnotonlyresultsinpoorperformanceofSOEsbutalsoin-effectiveplayoftheroleofsupportingthewholenationaleconomysothatthewholeeconomy’occurringatthepresentstageofChinatothelagging-behindreadjustmentandreformofdistributionofstate-ownedeconomyandlagging-behindreformofstate-ownedeconomy,suchasurbanlaid-offemployees,banks’conomyareactuallyconnecte,animportantreasonfortheslowincreaseoffarmers’incomeisthaturbanindustrialeconomyhaspoorperformance,especiallystate-ownedeconomy,whichfailstoproduceenoughsurplustosubsidizetheagriculturalsectorandenoug,thedevelopment’seconomicdevelopmentisincoordinatewithsocialdevelopment,ocialundertakingswhichincludeculture,liswidelyscatteredinordinarycompetitivefieldswithcomparativelyscarceinvestmentinsocialundertakings....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

          esearchfoundationChinahasatop-rankingbiotechnologyresearchforceandBeijing,Shanghai,Tianjin,ChangchunandShenzhen,,inBeijingthereare"fouracademiesandfouruniversities"(ChineseAcademyofSciences,ChineseAcademyofMedicalSciences,AcademyofMilitaryMedicalSciences,ChinaAcademyofTraditionalMedicineScience,PekingUniversity,TsinghuaUniversity,BeijingUniversityofChineseMedicine,ChinaAgriculturalUniversity)and16nationalkeylaboratoriesinthelifesciencedomainwhichaccountfor41%ofthetotallifesciencedomain;andover1/3ofannualoutlayofnationalkeyprojectssuchasthe"863",morethan320thousandpeoplehavebeensenttostudyabroad,60%,57%ofthethesescarriedintheworld-famousmedicinemagazinessuchasBiochemistry,CellandScience,etcorenteredclinicalstageorareintheearlystageoffullp,biotechnologyhasbeenwidelyappliedtosuchfieldsasagriculture,foodindustry,pharmacy,sanitation,chemicalindustry,environmentalprotection,energysourcesandoceandevelopment,nfood,health,resource,environment,gricultureanditalsohascomparativelygooddevelopmentprospectsinsomeenterprisessuchasthebiochemicalindustry,biologicalenvironmentalprotectionandbiologicalenergy,theirscientificresearchcenterstoChinaandalotofstudentsabroadcomingbacktothemotherlandtostartbusinesses,thenumberofbio-technologyfirmshasincreasedrapidlyinrecentyears.InBeijing,biologicalengineeringandt,Beijingbiologicalengineeringandnew,%,sCo.,Ltd,ChinaBiowayBiotechGroupCo.,,,morethan60companiesundertakebiologicalpharmacy,diagnosticproducts,biochemicalmedicine,stemcellresearchandproductionandmostofthecompani,,TianjinbiotechnologyindustryrealizedsalesincomeofRMB11billionYuan,%,,ofwhichthereare36biologicalenterprises,23tradiationtrendCurrentlyvariousbiomedicinepaomedicineenterprisesandattractedalotofstudentsabroadtocomebacktoChinatostarttheircareer,andtheyhaveplayedaveryimportantroleinacceleratingthetransformationofbio-technologyresearchresults.InBeijing,atripodpatterniscomingintobeing,withZhongguancunLifeScienceParkasaninnovationresearchbaseandwithBeijingEconomicTechnologicalDevelopmentDevelopmentAreaandBeijngBioengineeringPharmacyIndustryBase(DaxingIndustryDevelopmentZone)asindustrializationbases;aprimaryparkinnovationsystemhascomeintobeing,with"biginstitutesandbiguniversities"asitsbackgroundandwithlifeinstitute,,withdomesticorforeignfamousenterprisesasitsmainbody,fdomesticandforeig,;NovoNordiskBiologicalTechnologyCo.,Ltd.,NovozymesBiologicalTechnologyCo.,,DPC(China),anacademicianandthe"Fatherofcrossbredrice",hascooperatedwithTianjinandfoundednationalcrossbredricetechnologycenter,anycharacteristicenterprisessuchasChangShengBiotechnologyCorporation,GenSciPharmaceuticalCo.,Ltd.,ChangShengGenePharmaceuticalCo.,Ltd,YataiPharmacyCo.,Ltd.,ChangchunHaiwangPharmaceuticalCo.,Ltd,ChangchunSanjiupharmaceuticalCo.,Ltd,,ChangchunBotaipharmaceuticalCo.,Ltd.,GeneticEngineeringCorporationofNortheastNormalUniversity,withChuangchunBiologicalProductsInstituteasitsbackbone.Hi-techenterprisesinShenzhenmainlyconcentrateinthehi-techarea,wheresomeindustriessuchasthebiologicalengineeringincubationbase,aceuticalorrelatedcompaniesandbackboneenterprisesplayaboostingrolethere....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.entplan,,"tosupportresearchoncommontechnologies"h,theIndustrialTechnologyDevelopmentBasePlanandotherrelevantplans,ex,researchoncommontechnologiesisalwaysmixedwithproductdevelopmentprojectsingovernmentplans,,oneofthemaintasksofthe242scientificacademiesandresearchinstitutesdirectlyunderthe10StatebureaussubordinatedtotheformerStateEconomicandTradeCommissionwastoconductresearchoncommontechnologieswithintheindustry,with12largescientificacademiesandresearchinstitutes,includingtheBeijingCentralIronSteelResearchInstitute,constitutrryingoutresearchonthecommontechnologiesofmosto,someacademiesandresearchinstitutesarestillengagedinresearchoncommontechnologies,butthereexistsgreatcontroversyastowhethertheseacademiesandinstituteshavereducedtheirinputinsuchresearchandwhetherthemanagerialsystemoftheseacademiesandinstitutesisfavorabletorese,whichisinlinewithpublicfinancialprinciplesandinternationalrulesandmeetstherequirementsofindustrialtechnologyupgradingandinternationalcompetition,hasnotyetbeenestablishedInstancesofthegovernmentsubsidizingenterprisesintheirproductdevelopmentand"constructionworkandprojectdevelopment"stillexist,whichgivesrisetoanabsurdsituation:ontheonehand,thegovernmentisconstantlyprovidingfinancialaidinrespectofproductdevelopmentandscaledproductionincompetitivefields,andontheotherhand,therehasnotbeenanybreakthroughinsomekeycommontechnologiesforalongtimeduetolackoffunds,xplicitlydefined,whichleadstothefactthatthereisnounifiedstandardontheselectionofcommontechnologyprojectsanddefinitepolicytargets,montechnologies(1)Itlacksunityandcoherenceanddoesnotgiveprominencetothekeypoints;theorganizationformissingleThegovernmentlacksclearcategories,,theonlyorganizationalformisthatofdirectfinancialaid.(2)TheprincipleoftakingtheindustryastheguideisnotgivendueprominenceResearchoncommontechnologiesisdifferentfromlaboratoryresearchinthefactthatitshouldaimtomeettheneedsofenterprises,,however,inrespectofprojectselection,thetechnologyrouteisprimarilydeterminedbythegovernmentorscientists,andtheenterprises’demandsoncommontechnologiesarenotadequatelyreflected;intermsoffunding,thegovernmenthasnotestablishedamulti-levelandmulti-channelfundinputmechanism;andintermsofselectionofresponsibleunits,therequirementfortheenterprisestoparticipateintheresearchisnothighlighted.(3)ThemanagementandorganizationoftheresearchoncommontechnologiesarenotrationalFirstly,themanagerialsystemofthescientificacademiesandresearchinstitutes,themainforceinresearchoncommontechnologiesinChina,,thedeepeningofthestructuralreformofthemarketeconomyinChinaandthecontinuouslyintensifyingmarketcompetitionathomeandabroadallrequiretheenterprisestobecometherealmainstayofinnovationandestablishmorerationalandeffectiveorganizationandmanagementpatternswhichcanmotivatetheenterprises(4)Thespreadoftheachievementsofcommontechnologiesisnotgivenfullattention,andtherelacksrelevantpolicytoencourageresearchoncommontechnologies,especiallypoliciesonintellectualpropertyThepolicytoencouragethediffusionofcommontechnologiesismainlyreflectedintwoaspects:oneistoencourageknowledge-sharingandadvantagecomplementationinthecourseofcooperativeresearch,theotheristomakeanintellectualpropertypolicywhichc,itisquitecommonforoneun,agreatdealoftheachievementsoftheresearchesfundedbythegovernmentremainwithintheresearchunits,andtherearenospecificevaluationsandresponsibilityrestraintsonwhhnologiesFirstly,afterChina’saccessiontotheWTO,thegovernment’slinks,itsfinancialaidtoindustrialtechnologyresearchanddevelopmentandtheproportionandformoffundingarerestrictedbyrelate,Chinawillhavetoadjustthepositionand,itisnecessarytoestabli,thegovernmentcannotdirectlysubsidizeproductresearchanddevelopmentandmanufacturing,ommontechnologieswithi,itisnecessarytopromotetheupgradingofindustrialtmitatingforeigntechnologiestorealizeeconomicgrowthcannotgoonforlong,andthesustain,mostindustriesinChinahaveenteredthestagewherethereisanurgentneedforaforwardleapintheindustrialtechnologylevelandabreakthroughinagreatmanykeycommontechnologies,therefore,theindustrialcommunity’,concentrateonthecrucialpointsandbreakthroughthetechnologicalbottlenecksareveryrealandpressingproblems....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.葡京娱外围足球

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